Although poaching is a potential threat to rhinos, no incidents of poaching have been reported since the 1990s due to effective law enforcement by the Park Authority and initiatives such as the Protection Unit and Monitoring of Rhinoceroses (RMPU) and the Coastal Patrol.
The immediate threats to the Javan rhino population come from reduced genetic diversity and natural disasters. The small size of the Javan rhino population is in itself cause for concern. Low genetic diversity could reduce the survivability of rhinos in the event of natural disasters or diseases. Disasters such as volcanic eruptions or earthquakes, disease, and genetic drift remain the main threats to the species.
Another threat to the Javan rhinoceros is the increased demand for land caused by the growing human population. Forest clearing for agriculture and commercial logging is being carried out in and around the sanctuary where these animals occur.
Threats to the Javan rhino population, including:
- Lack of population growth
- Low reproductive rate
- Inbreeding depression
- The future threat of poaching
- Inadequate population management
- Lack of population vision management
- Lack of prompt action
- Lack of population resilience
- Risk of natural disasters
- Risk of sea-level rise and drought due to climate change against the risks that can be mitigated by management
- Competition with Banteng
- Increase in the human population around the park (domestic animals, disease transmission, disturbance, activity = increased stress)
- Insufficient ecological information about population demography, birth rate/range, lifespan, density-dependent
West Javan Rhinos are endangered due to poor habitat and population management, inbreeding depression, limited carrying capacity, and insufficient management ability to respond to the increased risk of disease, illness, poaching, habitat degradation and loss, stress, caused by a growing human population.
The Ever-Present Risk of Poaching due to increasing demand for rhino horn in Asia is not adequately addressed by current protection and conservation management global warming and harsh environmental conditions (such as rising sea levels, drought, and food shortages) are putting additional pressure on the rhino population.
The human population will continue to increase and with it, the threats to rhinos and their habitat will also increase. Many people are involved in the illegal harvesting of forest products in and around the UKNP.
Local law enforcement is inadequate and ineffective in combating illegal collection. Domestic cattle graze in National Parks and are carriers and transmit diseases to rhinos. Education and outreach for the national park community are limited.
Local national park management agencies and local governments are reluctant to address encroachment and resource extraction. The special area of the national park is not well managed. Proper management of this area will mitigate the identified issues.
The rate of rhino poaching has been increasing worldwide, but UNDP’s level of protection to deal with this threat has not changed. The current anti-poaching commitment is sufficient to prevent poaching given the increased risk of poaching. The demand for a rhino horns will stay the same or increase in the future.
Community involvement in conservation and park management could help reduce the threat of rhino poaching.