Distribution is endemic to Africa. Widespread, but localized, south of the Sahara from Senegal to Ethiopia and south to South Africa, being absent from the Sahara and Namib Deserts.
Not recorded from Lesotho, but they almost certainly do occur. Although sometimes shown as absent from the forests of the Congo Basin, Aardvarks are in fact widely distributed throughout the region; for example, in Congo they occur in savannas and forests from at least the Bateke Plateaux northwards to the border with Cameroon and the Central African Republic, while in Gabon they have been camera-trapped in the Ivindo N. P. (and a skull was found in Minkebe N. P.).
Aardvark’s presence in West African rainforests is not well known.
The distribution of the Aardvark is largely determined by the distribution of suitable ant and termite species In Pre-Dynastic Egypt, the Aardvark occurred in the Nile Delta as has been proved by faithful representations on jugs of that period, and in paintings in tombs.
Habitat Present in a wide range of habitats, including grassland, all savanna types, woodlands and thickets, semi-arid Karoo (South
Africa) and the transition zones (savanna-forest) of West Africa; also known from all the forested zones of central Africa except, seemingly, swamp forests.
Recorded in submontane forests of the Udzungwa Mts and to elevations of 3200 m in the Bale Mts of Ethiopia. Their preferred habitat is flat or gently sloping ground that is not too rocky, which facilitates the digging of burrows and excavation of ant nests. Steep slopes are sometimes utilized, mainly in traversing areas. The presence of ants and termites is vital. The presence of free-standing water is not essential.